With a hydroelectric generator, the kinetic energy of the water is converted into electrical energy. Turbines convert hydropower into electrical energy.
In order to generate energy, the water is directed down a slope to turbines or water wheels. They in turn, drive an electrical generator that converts the kinetic energy into electricity. How much electricity a hydroelectric generator produces depends on various factors. The more water flows through the turbines, the more electricity can be generated. The height of the gradient is also decisive: the higher the gradient, the greater the efficiency. The amount of electricity generated depends primarily on the amount of flowing water and the height difference. With the latest technology, a hydroelectric generator today can achieve an efficiency of over 90 percent.
Hydropower is economical
Hydropower is produced in 150 countries. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. With a dam and reservoir it is also a flexible source of electricity, since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down very rapidly (as little as a few seconds) to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and it generally has a considerably lower output level of greenhouse gases than photovoltaic power.
Types of Hydroelectric Generators
Small power plant – watermill
Why has a technology that has proven itself for centuries been almost forgotten? In these structures, running water drives a wheel that using gears turns a generator.
Available in all sizes.
The screw turbine has minimal environmental disturbances, is environmentally friendly (no river bed change, high fish tolerance) and has a long service life. Swallowing capacity from 0.1 to 5.5 m3 / s and a head of up to 10 m.
Pico Hydroelectric Generator / Pelton Turbine
It is recommended to go with this variant of hydroelectric generator! The usable output is determined by the hydraulic parameters, water volume and net head. A Pelton turbine has a horizontal impeller arrangement. The discharge takes place via a pipe on which the turbine is placed. The water supply line is connected to bayonet couplings. Depending on the amount of water available, up to three nozzles are possible. The water leaves the turbine without pressure. These power plants are very compact and maintenance-free, simple, robust construction, low maintenance, no wearing parts suitable for drinking water, easily customizable, can be combined very well with photovoltaics, light weight, good efficiency, inexpensive.
Pico hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power generation of under 5 kW. These generators have proven to be useful in small, remote communities that require only a small amount of electricity – for example, to power one or two fluorescent light bulbs and a TV or radio in 50 or so homes. Even smaller turbines of 200–300 W may power a single home in a developing country with a drop of only one meter. Pico-hydro setups typically are run-of-stream, meaning that a reservoir of water is not created, only a small weir is common, pipes divert some of the flow, drop this down a gradient, and through the turbine before being exhausted back to the stream.
Pico Hydro on Wikipedia